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The Origin of Icosahedral Symmetry in Viruses

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Certainly one of the most intriguing facts about viruses is that the large majority of them display full icosahedral symmetry, arguably the highest and also the most esthetically-pleasing symmetry shown in Nature. The elements of icosahedral symmetry involve 6 five-fold rotation axes, 10 three-fold, and 15 two-fold. The figure to the right shows a number of examples, including the 60nm-diameter human papilloma virus at one end and 28nm CCMV near the other; similar image reconstructions for still larger viruses, up to the 100nm-diameter herpes simplex virus, are available from cryo-EM and X-ray work (Figure from Review by Baker et al.).
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